1. Barbara Kellerman

  1. Harvard University, USA
  1. Barbara Kellerman, Center for Public Leadership, Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, Taubman Building, Cambridge,
    MA 02138, USA. Email: barbara_kellerman{at}harvard.edu


The article proposes that patterns of dominance and deference have changed throughout human history. It further proposes that
in the last half century such change has – due to culture and technology – accelerated. These fundamental shifts have not,
however, had an impact on the leadership industry, which continues, erroneously, to presume that leaders are all-important,
that followers are unimportant, and that context is other than central. It is concluded that leadership education and development
must themselves adapt to the changing times – times in which leaders generally are losing power and influence, while followers
generally are gaining.

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Leading questions: The end of leadership – redux