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Abstract

Research exploring transformational and transactional leader behaviors has focused largely on bivarite relations among these
behaviors and relevant criteria. This has limited the extent to which Bass’s (1985) argument that optimally effective leaders
engage in both types of behavior can be directly assessed. Pattern-oriented analyses were used here to discern which behavioral
pattern was associated with the highest levels of subordinate satisfaction and commitment. In general, optimally effective
leaders used a combination of transformational and contingent reward (e.g. exchange-based transactional leadership) behaviors,
coupled with a low level of passive management-by-exception behavior (e.g. remaining uninvolved until problems emerge).

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Are the Best Leaders Both Transformational and Transactional? A Pattern-oriented Analysis
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